“Neutrino physics is largely an art of learning a great deal by observing nothing.” ~ Haim Harari

The mystery to explain the origin of life continues to unravel

The Standard Model is our one-stop insight into three of the four fundamental forces of nature (except gravity). It achieves this through categorizing all 17 elementary particles, which act as carriers for these fundamental forces. For example, bosons are associated with the weak force.

It was the discovery of the Higgs’ Boson in 2012 that supposedly completed the Standard Model, now that scientists had identified the source of all mass in the Universe. And while this very important discovery had, and still does, its time in the spotlight, there was something more ghostly lurking right around the corner.

Fermions are…


A simulation of the GW190521 black hole merger

On Wednesday September 2nd, 2020, astronomers at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory in the USA and the Virgo Interferometer Observatory in Italy reported the detection of the most mammoth black hole collision to date, having occurred seven billion years ago. This comes at the heels of their gravitational wave detectors first picking up the corresponding signal on May 21st, 2019.

The GW190521 black hole merger is the product of the collision between two inspiraling black holes, weighing in at 85 and 66 solar masses. The resulting black hole is a whopping 142 times the mass of our Sun. …


“Black Holes are where God divided by zero.” ~ Albert Einstein

Few would have fathomed that a mere observation on John Michell’s part in the late 18th century would culminate in the discovery of one of the most magnificent celestial bodies. You are probably thinking why this article is based on one such celestial body that prohibits any incident light from escaping, hence rendering observation nearly impossible. But if you have a keen eye, you would have stopped to think about the “nearly” in my last sentence. Because that is exactly what this article hopes to accomplish, as do the subsequent pair of articles conjoined to this one.

Reverting back to…


“In the popular imagination, the Big Bang is a great explosion; at one time there was nothing, then matter erupted into previously empty space. However, the Big Bang is the beginning of spacetime itself, not an event in time.” ~ Taner Edis

Speaking in a strictly scientific context, one often ponders how it all began. The exact instant the right chord struck, and up we popped: a minuscule part in a big, big Universe. And to even fathom that it all began at a single point was an idea widely and vehemently opposed at the time of its inception. Instead, more people chose to believe the steady-state model, dictating that the Universe exists now as it has always been in the past: unchanged and perpetual.

Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity proved monumental in establishing a grid that encompasses all space and time…


“Great marriages are like the Higgs’ Boson particle, its existence has been theorized, but no one has ever seen one.” ~ Dov Davidoff

In expression of his frustration over being unable to identify a trail to the elusive Higgs’ Boson, Nobel laureate Leon Lederman famously dubbed it the God Particle in his book titled the same. From there, it took two decades and an expense enumerating billions of dollars, for the God Particle to lift its veil in 2012. Scientists working at the Large Hadron Collider on CERN’s ATLAS and CMS experiments reported the discovery of a particle with mass equivalent to 126GeV of energy, similar to what had been proposed at the time regarding the Higgs mechanism.

Why this discovery was made…


“Quantum Mechanics makes absolutely no sense.” ~ Roger Penrose

In the most general sense, quantum theory and classical theory are the two concepts that define a point in space at a point in time. On the surface, the two may be compared as the micro and macro levels of observation respectively. But upon further scrutiny we ascertain the most fundamental difference between the two: while the classical theory results in a sole outcome to an action, the quantum theory predicts a range of outcomes for the same action. Safe to say, classical theory breaks down at the quantum level. Each outcome is then associated with a probability, and a…


“God does not play dice.” ~ Albert Einstein

I am not going to deny that the complexity of this particular title might be a deterrent for some of you, but allow me to offer a consolation prize summed up in one word. And that is teleportation. It is, after all, the concept of quantum entanglement that laid out one of the first fundamental frameworks for making teleportation a possibility. And while it has not been observed on the macro level as yet, it is undoubtedly one of the most bewildering sightings of late to have occurred in the quantum world — better known as quantum teleportation. …

Rania Shafiq

not quite as simple as quantum physics

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